Multi-Stakeholder Training Programme on Climate Change Mitigation through
Participatory Carbon Management in Multifunctional Forests
A Training Series (June 2002-December 2002)
Sponsored by Winrock International, India, the Ford Foundation, India,
and IIFM, Bhopal
23-27 September 2002
Organized by Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal
Fossil fuel burning and deforestation have emerged as principal anthropogenic
source of rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere and the consequential
global warming. Variability in temperature, precipitation, snow cover,
sea-level and extreme weather events provide collateral evidence of global
climate change. This training program will draw from the recent advances
on causes and consequences of global climate change and its impact on
nature and society to prepare the training module and impart a series
of training on Climate Change Mitigation through Participatory Carbon
Management in Multifunctional Forests. Impact of climate change on ecology,
economy and society-the three pillars of sustainability-is increasing.
Emission reduction, although most useful, is also politically sensitive
for economic reasons. Proposals of the geoengineering for iron fertilization
of oceans or manipulation of solar flux using stratospheric scatters are
yet not feasible for scientific and environmental reasons. Forests as
carbon sinks, therefore, are required to play multifunctional role that
include, but are not limited to, biodiversity conservation and maintenance
of ecosystem functions; yield of goods and services to the society; enhancing
the carbon storage in trees, woody vegetation and soils; and providing
social and economic well-being of people. This training programme will
specifically explore strategies in that direction and provide options
for management of multifunctional forests over landscape continuum, employing
tools of conservation biology and restoration ecology, as a vital option
for climate change mitigation in future.
Rational for the Training Programme
Thus, there are six fundamental reasons for the module development and
1. While enough knowledge has been generated on the science of climate
change and its relationship with forests, stakeholders have limited experience
on how to manage multifunctional forests that simultaneously address biodiversity
conservation and maintenance of ecosystem functions, yield of goods and
services to the society, enhancing the carbon storage in trees, woody
vegetation and soils, and providing social and economic well-being to
the people. Providing a coherent basket of climate change mitigation options
multifunctional forests would, therefore, contribute to the objectives
of the Kyoto Protocol as well as other UN conventions having a bearing
on the sustainability of the planet. Synergies among Convention on Biological
Diversity, Desertification Convention, World
Heritage Convention, UN Forum on Forests, and the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change need to be explored and understood simultaneously.
2. Science of climate change is less well known beyond the confines of
the scientific community who by themselves lack power to implement their
recommendations. This is particularly true for the third world masses.
The training series is a step in that direction to reach to the people
who matter most. An informed society alone can make the difference.
3. People who are aware of the reasons of climate change are more likely
to act responsibly and support policies to mitigate climate change. Therefore,
training and awareness programs are needed in India, where only one-third
of the respondents in a sample of more than one thousand educated people
could perceive a correct concept of biodiversity, acid rain, desertification,
and threats posed by the loss of biodiversity. The training programme
will also provide opportunity to participants to understand the role of
local knowledge and institutions in sustainable management of tropical
4. Despite enormously growing literature on climate change, there is
a distinct lack of training material specifically targeted to multistakeholders
on sustainable management of multifunctional tropical forests and agroforests
as carbon sinks.
5. The exotic species have often dominated in restoration efforts throughout
the tropics; they are now, therefore, primary candidates in carbon sequestration
projects. Although there is an important role for plantations, exotics
should not be the only option in tropical afforestation and reforestation
projects. Nonetheless, in the absence of alternative species, planting
designs, and strategies, exotic species and monoculture planting may likely
become the norm in tropical regions for carbon sequestration. In order
to present the knowledge to practitioners we need a well-designed programme
to make practitioners aware on the multifunctional role that indigenous
species and forests play.
6. A practitioner-oriented training program and training material that
combines the principles of conservation biology, restoration ecology and
community participation is most desirable, but currently unavailable.
This training series shall act as training of trainers who will in turn
either support practice on the ground or provide training to frontline
managers they interact with routinely.
Objectives and Course Description
Three main objectives of this course are to develop course material
for the multistakehoder training programme on Climate Change Mitigation
through Participatory Carbon Management in Multifunctional Forests; and
to develop an understanding of the causes, consequences, and the mitigation
options within the framework of sustainability science for tropical forests
among the participants, and to equip them with the skills of participatory
designing and field application of climate change mitigation through conservation,
restoration and management of multifunctional forests.
Participants will be various stakeholders including foresters,
civil society, teachers, researchers, students and others either working
or intending to work for climate change mitigation, sustainability science,
forest restoration, and natural resource management in south Asia. Preference
will be given to those who are engaged in exploring and implementing the
sustainability science and human dimensions of global change on the ground.
Representation of both genders shall be encouraged. Organizations nominating
more than one candidate must nominate women as well.
Course contents and essential reading
- Science of the Climate Change
- Causes and consequences of global climate change
- Ecological responses of climate change
- Sustainability science for tropical forests
- Multifuntionality of tropical forests
- Options for climate change mitigation through multifunctional forest
- Principles and practices of conservation biology that contribute to
carbon management in tropical forests
- Principles and practices of restoration ecology that contribute to
carbon management in tropical forests
Basic Reading Material
Participants Kit: Participants shall be provided the basic reading
material that they carry with them for future use in the field. A rich
collection of state-of-art papers on global climate change mitigation
options and various components of the module shall be prepared for distribution.
Specific research and policy articles that address the management of multifunctional
tropical forests shall also be procured for inclusion in the kit. In order
to keep participants informed over the course of follow-up, they shall
be given subscription to the best research journal in India. Based on
the past record of research publications on climate change in India, we
have identified the journal Current Science, published by the Indian Academy
of Sciences, Bangalore, as this is the most cited (journal with highest
Science Citation Index in India) and most relevant and authentic source
for the knowledge on climate change in India.
Electronic Presentation Kit: The presentation kit shall be designed
for the training program. This will incorporate the course contents listed
Innovative use of Online Digital Library During the Training:
The training program will use the UNFCCC and IPCC digital collection of
information, UNEP-GRIDA-ARENDAL, and Conservation Ecology. We are thankful
for the permissions.
Training Schedule and Methods
The training duration shall be 5 days (Monday through Friday) for the
each of the two training programs. Training method shall be the participatory
pooling of current knowledge, identification of gaps and providing relevant
knowledge. All participants will become familiar with theoretical aspects
of global climate change as well as practical application for participatory
carbon management in multifunctional forests. Participants shall:
1. Read current literature about the climate change provided to them.
2. Discuss and debate the course contents as listed above in the classroom.
3. The design of the course will provide opportunities for discussion,
presentations and synthesis by participants.
We hope that after completion of the training participants shall be able
to follow-up and be able to apply knowledge in the field where they are
An innovation in training method will include use of peer-reviewed research
available in research journals online with the permission the journals
IIFM computer centre, with excellent facilities including e-mailing system,
intranet and internet, remains open round the clock.
Expectations from the Faculty
During the entire course period faculty will meet every day in a pre-dinner
session to review the progress, decide the future course of action, modify
the methodology for imparting the training and resolve other issues related
to training. This will help to keep the training focused and meaningful.
Expectations from the Participants
Participate in fieldwork, field note writing, class discussions and exercise.
Participants will have to complete the assignments given in class by the
faculty. We can learn only if we try.
Apart from the class discussions participants will make several presentations
based on the exercises. They will also be required to form groups several
times for accomplishing the learning tasks assigned to them.
Registration and Process of Selection
Nominations supported by a desire of the organisation in which the candidate
is working to use the services of the trained persons for the cause of
management of multifunctional forests and agroforests in India shall be
preferred. We will also welcome the contribution of the organization sponsoring
the candidate in various ways including the time of the candidate, travel
costs etc that organisation may like to contribute. Participants can register
by sending e-mail to Course Coordinator giving complete personal and institutional
address, phone, fax, e-mail, Curriculum Vitae and other details. The candidates
should also enclose the letter endorsing their candidature by the organization.
We will examine the application and inform appropriately.
Course Fee: Rs. 8000/- for Indian nationals, Rs. 12,000 for participants
from other South Asian countries, and US$ 500 for foreign nationals. The
fee does not include travel. Limited number of fellowships for deserving
candidates are available through Winrock-Ford Small grant to facilitate
participation. Should you wish to apply for the fellowship please send
the detailed CV. If awarded, the fellowship will cover course fee and
Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal, India (http://www.iifm.org)
Indian Institute of Forest management (IIFM), Bhopal, with excellent
teaching, training, education and consulting facilities, is situated in
the heartland of India. It is a unique national institution of international
repute. IIFM was established in 1982 as an autonomous Institute under
the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India with an objective
of providing leadership in the field of forest management by developing
professional excellence through research, education, training, extension
and advisory activities. IIFM has gained significant experience working
with policy makers and international donor agencies on one hand, and a
wide range of professionals like foresters, development workers, academicians,
NGOs, and local people on the other. In this process, it has contributed
to the conceptual shift in the field of forest management, towards the
community participation in the management of forests.
IIFM has taken the lead in the field of C & I for sustainable forest
management in India. The Bhopal-India Process of identification and implementation
of Criteria & Indicators for sustainable forest management is known
and recognized world-wide. The first, and so far the only one of its kind
in the South Asian Region, IIFM is all set to provide the leadership in
the field of Sustainable Forest management (SFM). Realizing the global
importance of the subject, IIFM has already initiated the Bhopal-India
Process to evolve a set of 'Criteria and indicators' for SFM in India
and look forward to extend the same, with appropriate modifications to
other countries in the region. In this process, the multi-disciplinary
faculty team of IIFM - a unique combination of technical forestry, management,
social and behavioral sciences - adds strength through its educational,
training, research and consulting activities.
IIFM is recognized as a very reputed training center in the field of
forestry. The issues and projects addressed include World Bank -WWF sponsored
Measures of Success for sustainable Forest Management, FAO LFCC, ITTO
SFM project, Participatory Forest Management, Ethnoforestry and Indigenous
Knowledge on Forest Management, Joint Forest Management, and Community
Forestry. Forest managers, community forestry professionals, grassroots
functionaries, researchers and trainers attend training courses from government
and non-government organizations across the region.
IIFM offers three educational programs viz. PG Diploma in Forest Management
(PGDFM) for fresh graduates of different streams and M.Phil course on
Resource Management (MRM) for serving professionals, and the PhD programme.
Our students come from SAARC countries as well and they are encouraged
to carry out studies in their respective country situations. IIFM, thus,
stands benefited of accumulated research experience across countries in
Our collaborative programmes with national and international bodies include
FAO, the World Bank, WWF, RECOFTC, CIFOR, FAO, IUFRO, ITTO, NIES (Japan),
Ford foundation, Asia Forest Network, SIDA, IDRC, TERI, ADB etc.
Deep Narayan Pandey, Indian Forest Service (1988: Rajasthan).
Currently on deputation to Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal
as Associate Professor. Coordinated and conducted the World Bank sponsored
training series (1999-2002) on Measures of Success for Sustainable Forest
Management. Received national honor in forestry in India, Indira Priyadarshini
Vrikshamitra Award, given by the Government of India for the year 1994
for outstanding field work in forestry. Won the Hewetson Gold Medal for
the Best Forester in 1984, Government Silver Medal for Forest Management
in 1987, and Environment award in 1995, given by a leading Indian NGO.
Wrote 8 books, with 27,000 copies sold (1991-2002), published 167 papers
in peer-reviewed journals, chapters in peer-reviewed books, and popular
science and policy magazines. Member of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science, Society for Conservation Biology, IUCN Commission
on Ecosystem Management, International Eco-Ethics Union, Fellow of the
Society of Ethnobotanists, Coordinator IUFRO Research Group 6.19.00 Ethnoforestry,
Address: Indian Institute of Forest Management, Post Box No 375,
Nehru Nagar, Bhopal-462
003, Telephone 91 755 775716, 773799, 765125, Fax: 772878. E-mail: email@example.com
Dr. Niraj Kumar, faculty at IIFM, has written extensively on community
forestry, joint forest management, and management of commons. Published
several papers in peer-reviewed journals and popular magazines. Currently
involved in exploring the links between climate change mitigation and
Address: Indian Institute of Forest Management, Post Box No 375,
Nehru Nagar, Bhopal-462
003, Telephone 91 755 775716, 773799, 765125, Fax: 772878. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Shri N.K. Joshi, Director, IIFM, Bhopal, and the Additional Director
General of Forests, Government of India
Prof. Deep N. Pandey, Faculty of Ecosystem Management and Forestry,
Dr. Niraj Kumar, Faculty of Communications and extension, IIFM,
Dr. C. S. Rathore, Faculty of Computer Science, IIFM, Bhopal
Dr. P.C. Kotwal, Faculty of Ecosystem Management and Forestry,
Dr. V.L.V. Kameswari, Faculty of Communications and extension,
Dr. A. Bhattacharya, Faculty of Ecosystem Management and Forestry,
Dr. R. K. Singh, Faculty of Ecosystem Management and Forestry,
Dr. V.K. Sinha, Faculty of Ecosystem Management and Forestry, IIFM,
Prof. P. K. Biswas, Faculty of Sociology, IIFM, Bhopal
Dr. Dharmendra Dugaya
Resource Persons from the Winrock International, India
Dr. Kinsuk Mitra, Deputy Country Chief, Winrock International
Agoramoorthy, G., and K.J. Hsu. 2002. The threat of human-induced climate
change cannot be ignored. Current Science 82: 904-905.
Arthur, R. 2000. Coral bleaching and mortality in three Indian reef regions
during an El Niño southern oscillation event. Current Science
Bawa, K. S., Seidler, R. 1998. Natural forest management and conservation
of biodiversity in tropical forests. Conservation Biology 12,
Beier, Paul & Noss, Reed F. 1998. Do habitat corridors provide connectivity?
Conservation Biology 12 (6), 1241-1252.
Berkes, F. and D. Jolly. 2001. Adapting to climate change: social-ecological
resilience in a Canadian western Arctic community. Conservation Ecology
5(2): 18. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss2/art18
Borden, J. H.;, Marland, G., Schlamadinger, B., Matthews, R. 2000. "Kyoto
forests" and a broader perspective on management. Science
Chhabra, A., Palria, S., Dadhwal, V.K. 2002. Growing stock-based forest
biomass estimate for India. Biomass and Bioenergy 22, 187-194.
Davis-Case, D. A. 2001. The reflective practitioner: learning and teaching
in community-based forest management. Conservation Ecology 5(2):
15. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss2/art15
FAO., State of the World's Forests 2001, Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2001, pp. 181.
Gadgil, S., 1995. Climate change and agriculture - an Indian perspective.
Current Science 69, 649-659.
Garg, V. K. 1999. Leguminous trees for the rehabilitation of sodic wasteland
in northern India. Restoration Ecology 7 (3), 281-287.
Gatto, M., A. Caizzi, L. Rizzi, and G. A. De Leo. 2002. The Kyoto Protocol
is cost-effective. Conservation Ecology 6(1): r11. [online]
Greenstone, M.H. 2002. Greenhouse gas mitigation: The biology of carbon
sequestration. BioScience 52, 323-323.
Hannam K. 2000. Utilitarianism and the Identity of the Indian Forest
Service. Environment and History 6, 205-228.
Houghton, J. T. et al. (eds) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis.
Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001.
Hughes, L. 2000. Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal
already apparent? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15:
Kadekodi, G.K., Ravindranath, N.H. 1997. Macro-economic analysis of forestry
options on carbon sequestration in India. Ecological Economics
Kates, R. W., W.C. Clark, R. Corell, J. M. Hall, C.C. Jaeger, I. Lowe,
J.J. McCarthy, H.J. Schellnhuber, B. Bolin, N.M. Dickson, S. Faucheux,
G. C. Gallopin, A. Grubler, B. Huntley, J. Jager, N.S. Jodha , R. E. Kasperson,
A. Mabogunje, P. Matson, H. Mooney, B. Moore III, T. O'Riordan, and U.
Svedlin. 2001. Sustainability science. Science 292: 641-642.
May, R. M. 2002. The future of biological diversity in a crowded world.
Current Science 82: 1325-1331.
McCarthy, J. J., Canziani, O. F., Leary, N. A., Dokken, D. J. and White,
K. S. (eds.) Climate change 2001: Impacts,Adaptation, and Vulnerability
Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report
of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge Univ.
Press, Cambridge, 2001.
Meher-Homji, V.M. 2000. Climate changes: projections and prospects. Current
Science 78, 1-2.
Munasinghe, M. 2001. Exploring the linkages between climate change and
sustainable development: A challenge for transdisciplinary research. Conservation
Ecology 5(1): 14. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss1/art14
Noble, I.R., Dirzo, R. 1997. Forests as human-dominated ecosystems. Science
Noss, R. F. 2001. Beyond Kyoto: Forest management in a time of rapid
climate change. Conservation Biology 15, 578-590.
Pachauri, R. K. and A. Behl (eds). 1991. Global Warming: Mitigation
Strategies and Perspectives from Asia and Brazil. New Delhi: Asian
Energy Institute. 205 pp.
Pandey, D. N. 1993. Wildlife, national parks and people. Indian Forester
Pandey, D. N. 1998. Ethnoforestry: Local Knowledge for Sustainable
Forestry and Livelihood Security. Himanshu, New Delhi.
Pandey, D. N. 2001. A bountiful harvest of rainwater. Science
Pandey, D. N. 2002. Carbon sequestration in agroforestry systems.
Climate Policy PII: S1469-3062(02)00025-6 (article in press), available
Pandey, D. N. 2002. Cultural resources for conservation science (in press).
Pandey, D. N. 2002. Global climate change and carbon management in multifunctional
forests. Current Science (in press).
Pandey, D. N. 2002. Indigenous sustainability science. Human Ecology
(submitted; under review).
Pandey, D. N. 2002. Sustainability science for tropical forests. Conservation
Ecology 6(1): r13. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol6/iss1/resp13
Pandey, D. N., Measures of Success for Sustainable Forestry, World
Bank WWF Global Alliance for Forest Conservation and Sustainable
Use; IIFM, Bhopal, 2001, pp.125
Pandey, N. 2002. Gender economics of the Kyoto Protocol. Conservation
Ecology 6(1): r14. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol6/iss1/resp14.
Peterson, G., G.A. De Leo, J.J. Hellmann, M.A. Janssen, A. Kinzig, J.R.
Malcolm, K.L. O'Brien, S.E. Pope, D.S. Rothman, E. Shevliakova, and R.R.T.
Tinch. 1997. Uncertainty, Climate Change, and Adaptive Management. Conservation
Ecology [online] 1(2): 4. URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol1/iss2/art4
Phillips, O. L., Y. Malhi, N. Higuchi, W.F. Laurance, P.V. Núñez,
R.M. Vásquez, S.G. Laurance, L.V. Ferreira, M. Stern, S. Brown,
and J. Grace. 1998. Changes in the carbon balance of tropical forests:
evidence from long-term plots. Science 282: 439-442.
Prentice, I. C. et al., IPCC Third Assessment Report 2001, Cambridge
Univ. Press, 2001, vol. 1, pp 183-237.
Pruthi, S., S. Khan, and M.A. Qureshi. 1999. Human dimensions of climate
change: Results of a survey of scientists and engineers. Current Science
Rajvanshi, A. K., Talukas can provide critical mass for India's sustainable
development. Current Science, 2002, 82, 632-637.
Ramakrishnan, P.S., 1998. Sustainable development, climate change and
tropical rain forest landscape. Climatic Change 39: 583-600.
Rao, U.R., and S. C. Chakravarty. 1992. An evaluation of global warming
and its impact. Current Science 62: 469-478.
Rastogi, M., S. Singh, and H. Pathak. 2002. Emission of carbon dioxide
from soil. Current Science 82: 510-517.
Ravindranath, N. H., Pandey, D. N., Murthy, I., Bist, R., Jain, D. 2001.
The clean development mechanism and village-based restoration in central
India. In, Poffenberger, M. (ed.) Communities & Climate Change.
CFI, Santa Barbara, USA pp.1-73.
Ravindranath, N.H., Sukumar, R. 1998. Climate change and tropical forests
in India. Climatic Change 39, 563-581.
Resh, S.C., Binkley, D., Parrotta, J.A. 2002. Greater soil carbon sequestration
under nitrogen-fixing trees compared with Eucalyptus Species. Ecosystems
Riitters, K., J. Wickham, R. O'Neill, B. Jones, and E. Smith. 2000. Global-scale
patterns of forest fragmentation. Conservation Ecology 4(2):
3. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss2/art3
Saha, S. 2002. Anthropogenic fire regime in a deciduous forest of central
India. Current Science 82, 1144-1147.
Schimel, D. S., J.I. House, K.A. Hibbard, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, P. Peylin,
B.H. Braswell, M.J. Apps, D. Baker, A. Bondeau, J. Canadell, G. Churkina,
W. Cramer, A.S. Denning, C.B. Field, P. Friedlingstein, C. Goodale, M.
Heimann, R.A. Houghton, J.M. Melillo, B. Moore III, D. Murdiyarso, I.
Noble, S.W. Pacala, I.C. Prentice, M.R. Raupach, P.J. Rayner, R.J. Scholes,
W.L. Steffen, and C. Wirth. 2001. Recent patterns and mechanisms of carbon
exchange by terrestrial ecosystems. Nature 414: 169-172.
Schulze, E.-D., Wirth, C., Heimann, M. 2000. Managing forests after Kyoto.
Science 289, 2058-2059.
Shastri, C. M., Bhat, D. M., Nagaraja, B. C., Murali, K. S., Ravindranath,
N. H. 2002. Tree species diversity in a village ecosystem in Uttara Kannada
district in Western Ghats, Karnataka. Current Science 82,
Singh, J.S. 2002. The biodiversity crisis: a multifaceted review. Current
Science 82: 638-647.
Singh, R and Lal, M. 2000. Sustainable forestry in India for carbon mitigation.
Current Science 78(5): 563-567
Singh, T. P., Varalakshmi, V., Ahluwalia, S. K., 2000. Carbon sequestration
through farm forestry: case from India. Indian Forester 126:
Stier, Sam C. & Siebert, Stephen F. 2002. The Kyoto Protocol: an
opportunity for biodiversity restoration forestry. Conservation Biology
16 (3), 575-576.
Walker, B., and W. Steffen. 1997. An overview of the implications of
global change for natural and managed terrestrial ecosystems. Conservation
Ecology [online]1(2): 2. Available from the Internet. URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol1/iss2/art2
Walther, G.-R., Post, E., Convey, P., Menzel, A., Parmesan, C., Beebee,
T.J.C., Fromentin, J.-M., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Bairlein, F., 2002. Ecological
responses to recent climate change. Nature 416: 389-395.
Watson, R. T. et al. 2000. Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry.
IPCC Special Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Wesemael, Bas van, Lambin, Eric F. 2001. Carbon sinks and conserving
biodiversity. Science 294: 2094-2095.
Whiteman, G. 1999. Sustainability for the planet: a marketing perspective.
Conservation Ecology 3(1): 13. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss1/art13